The most complete EV Charging industry Vocabulary

Understanding the complex landscape of the EV Charging industry can be daunting, especially with the constant evolution of terminology and technology. With so many acronyms and jargon, every EV Charging professional needs a trustworthy resource to help them adapt.

definitions explained


Alternating Current (AC) Charging

AC charging, or alternating current charging, is a method of recharging electric vehicles (EVs) where the alternating current supplied by the electrical grid is converted into direct current (DC) by the vehicle's onboard charger. This conversion is necessary as EV batteries store energy in DC form.

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID)

The Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID) was a legislative framework established by the European Union (EU) in 2014 to promote the development and deployment of infrastructure for alternative fuels, including electricity, hydrogen, and natural gas. It aimed to support the integration of these fuels into the transport sector, facilitating the transition to low-emission and sustainable transportation. AFID preceded the more recent Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR).

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Facility (AFIF)

The Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Facility (AFIF) is a funding mechanism established by the European Union (EU) to support the development and deployment of infrastructure for alternative fuels. It provides financial assistance for constructing recharging and refuelling stations for alternative fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, and liquefied natural gas (LNG), thereby facilitating the transition to low-emission and sustainable transportation.

Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR)

The Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR) is a legislative framework established by the European Union (EU) to promote and mandate the development of infrastructure for alternative fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, and liquefied methane. The regulation sets binding targets for EU Member States to ensure the availability and accessibility of recharging and refuelling stations for alternative fuel vehicles, supporting the transition to low-emission and sustainable transportation.

Battery Management System (BMS)

A Battery Management System (BMS) is an electronic system that manages and monitors the performance of a battery pack. It ensures the safety, efficiency, and longevity of the batteries by controlling the charging and discharging processes, monitoring the state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH), and balancing the cells within the battery pack.

Bidirectional Charging

Bidirectional charging is a technology that allows electric vehicles (EVs) to both draw power from the grid to charge their batteries and discharge electricity back into the grid or other devices. This dual capability is enabled by bidirectional chargers, which manage the flow of electricity in both directions.


CHAdeMO (Charge de Move) is a fast charging standard for electric vehicles (EVs) developed by the CHAdeMO Association, which includes major Japanese automakers and the Tokyo Electric Power Company. The name "CHAdeMO" is derived from the Japanese phrase "o cha demo ikaga desuka" which means "How about a cup of tea?", referencing the time it would take to charge a car.

Charge Point Management System (CPMS)

A Charge Point Management System (CPMS) is a software platform designed to manage, monitor, and optimise the operation of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. It provides functionalities for network operators, service providers, and users to control charging processes, manage energy consumption, and ensure efficient operation of the charging infrastructure.

Charge Point Manufacturer (CPM)

A Charge Point Manufacturer is a company that designs, develops, and produces electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. These manufacturers supply the hardware and technology needed for various charging scenarios, including residential, commercial, and public installations.

Charge Point Operator (CPO)

A Charge Point Operator (CPO) is a company or entity responsible for managing and maintaining a network of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations. CPOs ensure that the charging infrastructure is available, reliable, and efficient for EV users.

Charging Hub

A charging hub is a location equipped with multiple charging stations where electric vehicles (EVs) can recharge their batteries. These hubs are strategically placed to provide convenient access to charging infrastructure for various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, vans, trucks, and buses.

Charging Infrastructure

EV charging infrastructure refers to the network of facilities, equipment, and systems that supply electric energy for recharging electric vehicles (EVs). This infrastructure includes a variety of charging stations with different power levels and connectors to accommodate various EV models, ensuring efficient and accessible charging for all EV users.

Charging-as-a-Service (CaaS)

Charging-as-a-Service (CaaS) is a business model where third-party providers offer electric vehicle (EV) charging solutions on a subscription or pay-per-use basis. This service includes the installation, maintenance, and operation of EV charging infrastructure, allowing businesses, municipalities, and individuals to access charging facilities without owning or managing the equipment themselves.


CharIN (Charging Interface Initiative e.V.) is a global, non-profit association dedicated to promoting the adoption and development of standards in the field of electric vehicle (EV) charging systems. Established to advocate for the Combined Charging System (CCS) as the worldwide standard for EV charging, CharIN includes over 300 members from various industries involved in e-mobility, including automakers, charging station manufacturers, component suppliers, energy providers, and grid operators.

Combined Charging System (CCS)

The Combined Charging System (CCS) is a standardised charging protocol for electric vehicles (EVs) that integrates both AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) charging capabilities. It utilises a single connector to support versatile and efficient charging options for various EVs, accommodating fast and ultra-fast charging needs.

Depot charging

Depot charging is the process of charging electric vehicle (EV) fleets at a centralised location, typically at the fleet operator’s depot or hub. This method involves installing dedicated charging infrastructure at the depot where vehicles are parked overnight or during downtime, enabling systematic and efficient recharging operations.

Direct Current (DC) Charging

Direct Current (DC) charging, commonly known as fast charging, is a method of recharging electric vehicles (EVs) that involves supplying direct current directly to the vehicle's battery, bypassing the onboard charger. This method enables significantly faster charging times compared to alternating current (AC) charging, making it suitable for high-power applications such as public fast-charging stations and commercial fleet operations.

Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC)

DC Fast Charging (DCFC), also known as Level 3 charging, is a method of rapidly recharging electric vehicle (EV) batteries using direct current (DC). Unlike slower alternating current (AC) charging methods, DCFC bypasses the vehicle's onboard charger, delivering DC power directly to the battery, allowing for significantly faster charging times.

Distribution System Operator (DSO)

A Distribution System Operator (DSO) is an entity responsible for operating, managing, and ensuring the reliability of the local and regional electricity distribution networks. These networks transport electricity from the transmission system and distributed generation sources to end consumers, including homes and businesses.

Dynamic Load Balancing (DLB)

Dynamic Load Balancing (DLB) is a technology used in electric vehicle (EV) charging systems to manage and distribute the electrical load dynamically across various devices and systems in a household or facility. This helps prevent overloading the electrical network by adjusting the power distribution based on real-time demand.

Dynamic Load Management (DLM)

Dynamic Load Management (DLM) is an advanced energy management technology used to optimise and balance the electrical load among various devices, particularly electric vehicle (EV) chargers, within a given electrical infrastructure. It dynamically adjusts the power distribution based on real-time energy consumption, ensuring efficient use of available power and preventing overloading of the electrical grid.

e-Mobility Network Managing Entity (EGME)

The Electric Mobility Network Managing Entity (EGME), known in Portugal as "Entidade Gestora da Rede de Mobilidade Elétrica," is a state-owned enterprise responsible for managing and overseeing the operations of the electric mobility network. This includes the management of energy and financial flows associated with electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure.

e-Mobility Service Provider (eMSP)

An e-Mobility Service Provider (eMSP) is a company that facilitates electric vehicle (EV) charging services by providing access to a network of charging stations. These providers offer a range of services, including charging passes, access to charging stations, mobile apps for navigation and payment, customer support, and billing management.


Eichrecht is the German and Austrian calibration law that mandates the accurate measurement of energy provided by all measuring devices, including electricity meters at EV charging stations. This law ensures that consumers receive precise and verifiable billing for the electricity used to charge their electric vehicles (EVs).

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) refers to the systems and components that manage the delivery of electrical power from the grid to an electric vehicle (EV) to recharge its batteries. This includes connectors, charging stations, and control systems that ensure safe and efficient energy transfer. In this context, EVSE specifically refers to the connector used to charge a single electric vehicle in a single session.

Energy Management System (EMS)

An Energy Management System (EMS) in the context of electric vehicle (EV) charging refers to a sophisticated combination of software and hardware designed to monitor, control, and optimise the energy flow to and from EV charging stations. This system ensures efficient use of energy, reduces costs, and maintains the stability of the power grid while supporting the charging needs of electric vehicles.

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) is a legislative measure enacted by the European Union aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings across member states. This directive mandates energy performance standards and promotes the use of energy-saving measures in both new and existing buildings, contributing to the EU's broader goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050.

European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO)

The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) is an online portal established by the European Commission to serve as the central reference point for data and information on alternative fuels, infrastructure, and vehicles across Europe. It aims to support the transition to cleaner transportation by providing comprehensive and reliable information.

EV Roaming

EV roaming, or electric vehicle roaming, refers to the ability for electric vehicle (EV) drivers to access and use charging stations across different networks using a single authentication or payment method. This is analogous to mobile phone roaming, where users can connect to various networks while traveling without needing multiple accounts or subscriptions.

Fleet Charging

Fleet charging refers to the process of managing and optimising the charging of multiple electric vehicles (EVs) simultaneously, typically in a centralised location. This approach is essential for commercial and public fleets, such as those used by delivery services, public transportation, government agencies, and corporate fleets.

Grid Integration

Grid integration refers to the process of incorporating electric vehicles (EVs) into the existing power grid infrastructure. It involves leveraging technologies, policies, and strategies to optimize the charging and discharging of EVs in a way that benefits both the grid and EV users. This process is also known as vehicle-grid integration (VGI).

Grid planning

Grid planning and management for electric vehicles (EVs) involve strategic approaches to integrating EV charging into the existing power grid. This process ensures that the increased electricity demand from EVs is met without causing significant disruptions or requiring excessive new infrastructure investments.

High Power Charging (HPC)

High Power Charging (HPC) is an advanced EV charging technology delivering rapid DC power at over 100 kilowatts (kW). Using specialized stations and connectors like the Combined Charging System (CCS) or CHAdeMO, and liquid-cooled cables, HPC significantly reduces charging times.

ISO 15118

ISO 15118, formally titled "Road Vehicles – Vehicle to Grid Communication Interface," is an international standard that outlines a communication protocol for bidirectional charging and discharging between electric vehicles (EVs) and the grid. This standard facilitates various functionalities such as secure communication, smart charging, and the Plug & Charge feature, enhancing the interaction between EVs and charging infrastructure.

Level 1 charging

Level 1 charging is the most basic form of electric vehicle (EV) charging, utilising a standard household electrical outlet to deliver power to the vehicle. It operates at a voltage of around 120 volts (in North America) or 230 volts (in Europe), providing a slow but accessible method of charging.

Level 2 charging

Level 2 charging is a method of electric vehicle (EV) charging that utilises a 240-volt power source, offering a faster charging option compared to Level 1 charging. It requires the installation of dedicated charging equipment and provides a higher power output, significantly reducing charging times.

Level 3 charging

Level 3 charging, also known as DC fast charging or rapid charging, is the fastest method of charging electric vehicles (EVs). It uses direct current (DC) to charge the battery directly, bypassing the vehicle's onboard charger, and delivers power outputs ranging from 50 kW to 350 kW.

Local EV Infrastructure Fund (LEVI)

The Local Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (LEVI) Fund is a UK Government initiative designed to support local authorities in England with the planning and delivery of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure. The fund is intended to facilitate the deployment of charging points, especially for residents who do not have access to off-street parking, and to bolster the local capacity and capability to support this infrastructure.

Megawatt Charging System (MCS)

The Megawatt Charging System (MCS) is a high-power electric vehicle (EV) charging standard under development by CharIN (Charging Interface Initiative e.V.) for large battery electric vehicles (BEVs). It is designed to provide charging rates up to 3.75 megawatts (MW), with a maximum voltage of 1.250 volts (V) direct current (DC) and a maximum current of 3.000 amperes (A).

North American Charging Standard (NACS)

The North American Charging Standard (NACS) is an electric vehicle (EV) charging connector system developed by Tesla. It offers both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) charging through a single compact plug. NACS has been used on all Tesla vehicles in the North American market since 2021 and was opened for use by other manufacturers in November 2022.

Open Charge Alliance (OCA)

The Open Charge Alliance (OCA) is a global, non-profit industry consortium that promotes the development, adoption, and compliance of open communication standards in the electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure sector. The alliance focuses on fostering collaboration, education, testing, and certification related to these standards.

Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI)

The Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI) is an open-source protocol designed to facilitate seamless communication and interoperability between different electric vehicle (EV) charging networks and service providers. It enables automated roaming, allowing EV drivers to charge their vehicles across various networks using a single interface.

Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP)

The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is an open-source communication standard that facilitates interoperability between electric vehicle (EV) charging stations and central management systems. Established by the Open Charge Alliance, OCPP allows any compliant charging station to connect with any compliant management software, ensuring flexibility and vendor independence in the EV charging infrastructure.

Open Clearing House Protocol (OCHP)

The Open Clearing House Protocol (OCHP) is an open-source communication protocol designed to enable seamless and standardized interaction between electric vehicle (EV) charging station management systems and clearing house systems. This protocol facilitates the connection of service providers and infrastructure providers, ensuring that EV drivers can charge their vehicles across different networks using a unified system.

Open Smart Charging Protocol (OSCP)

The Open Smart Charging Protocol (OSCP) is an open communication protocol designed to facilitate the interaction between charge point management systems and energy management systems or Distribution System Operators (DSOs). It provides a 24-hour forecast of grid capacity to ensure that electric vehicle (EV) charging is managed within the available electrical capacity, preventing grid overloads.

Plug & Charge (PnC)

Plug & Charge is a technology standardised by ISO 15118 that enables electric vehicle (EV) drivers to start charging sessions by simply plugging their vehicle into a compatible charging station. The vehicle and charging station authenticate each other automatically, facilitating a seamless and secure charging process without requiring additional user interactions such as RFID cards or mobile apps.

Private Charging

Private charging refers to the use of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations with controlled access, which are not available to the general public. These charging points are typically installed at residential properties, workplaces, or other private locations and are used exclusively by the owner or authorised individuals.

Public Charging

Public charging refers to electric vehicle (EV) charging stations that are accessible to all EV owners and are typically located in public areas such as shopping centres, car parks, and along motorways. These stations provide a convenient option for EV owners to recharge their vehicles while away from home or during long-distance travel.

Range Anxienty

Range anxiety refers to the concern or fear experienced by electric vehicle (EV) drivers that their vehicle may not have sufficient battery charge to reach their intended destination, potentially leaving them stranded without access to a charging station.

Smart Charging

Smart charging refers to the intelligent management of electric vehicle (EV) charging by connecting the vehicle, charging station, and grid through data communication. This system allows for the optimisation of energy consumption, cost savings, and enhanced grid stability by adjusting charging patterns based on various factors such as energy availability, cost, and user preferences.

State of Charge (SoC)

State of Charge (SoC) quantifies the remaining capacity available in a battery at a given time, expressed as a percentage of the battery's total capacity when fully charged. It indicates the proportion of charge left in the battery, where 0% signifies an empty battery and 100% signifies a fully charged one.

Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T)

The Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) is a comprehensive initiative by the European Union aimed at creating a cohesive, efficient, and high-quality transport infrastructure across Europe. It encompasses railways, roads, inland waterways, maritime routes, and airports, integrating them into a unified network to facilitate the seamless transportation of people and goods throughout the continent.

Transmission system operator (TSO)

A Transmission System Operator (TSO) is an entity responsible for the bulk transmission of electrical power from generation plants to regional or local electricity distribution operators. This role involves maintaining and operating the high-voltage electrical grid to ensure a reliable and efficient supply of electricity.

Ultra-Fast Charging

Ultra-fast charging (UFC), also known as high-power charging (HPC), refers to a method of recharging electric vehicles (EVs) that delivers a significantly higher power output compared to standard chargers. Ultra-fast chargers typically provide power levels ranging from 150 kW to 600 kW, enabling EVs to recharge their batteries up to 80% in under 30 minutes, and in some cases, as quickly as 10-15 minutes.

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X)

Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) refers to technologies that enable bidirectional electricity transfer between electric vehicles (EVs) and various energy-consuming destinations, such as the power grid, buildings, homes, other vehicles, and standalone electrical devices.

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)

Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is a technology enabling the bidirectional flow of electricity between electric vehicles (EVs) and the power grid, allowing EVs to supply stored energy back to the grid and help balance demand and support grid stability.

Vehicle-to-Home (V2H)

Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) is a technology that enables electric vehicles (EVs) to supply power to a home, using the energy stored in the vehicle’s battery. This process involves bidirectional charging, where the vehicle can both receive energy from the grid and discharge energy back to the home, providing a backup power source and potentially reducing electricity costs.

Vehicle-to-Load (V2L)

Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) refers to the capability of an electric vehicle (EV) to supply power from its battery directly to external electrical devices and appliances. This technology allows an EV to function as a mobile power source, providing electricity for various loads without requiring a bidirectional charger.

Wireless charging

Wireless electric vehicle (EV) charging is a method of charging EVs using electromagnetic induction, which eliminates the need for physical connectors or cables. The process involves the transfer of energy between a charging pad on the ground and a receiver installed in the vehicle, utilising resonant magnetic fields.

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